A. The Meaning of morphologi
Morphologi is the science that study of form of word and study about the rules how the words are formed.
There are many kinds part of grammar that is concerned with word:
Lexicon is about how words are placed and what the meaning of different part of speech of word
Word is the smallest unit form in language that can be classified an part of speech (noun, adjective, verb, etc).
Morpheme is the simple word that cannot be broken down into smaller form, it has the meaning or function.
- Simple word
Simple word is the word that consist of one morpheme
Example: home, cat, bird
- Complex word
Complex word is the word that consist of more than one morpheme
Example: hospitalizations = hospital – iz –ation – s (consist of 4 morphemes)
Gentleman = gentle – man (consist of 2 morphemes)
- Free morpheme
Free morpheme is the morpheme that can stand alone to get the meaning and function.
Example : book (buku) = noun
Make (membuat) = verb
Tall (tinggi) = adjective
- Bound morpheme
Bound morpheme is the morpheme that must attaché to another word to get the meaning of word, it cannot stand alone.
Example: er, fy, ly, ion, nes, etc (they don’t have the meaning )
B. Function of Morpheme
Morpheme have the function to give information about grammatical function.
-preposition = in, of, on, to, with, behind,etc
-article = the, a, an
-pronoun = I, you, he, she,they, we, etc
-auxiliaries = will, am, is, are, was, were, etc.
-inflectional affixes = ..s, ..ing, …ed.
Allomorph is the variant of morpheme that have the function to express how manner to pronounce singular word and express indefiniteness.
Example: English indefinite article = a, an.
English plural = s, z, es
Cats (cats), dogs (dogz),
Word structure :
- Root : the word that has component of meaning and cannot be broken into small units
Example: nation, create, act, etc
- Stem : the form to which an affix is added.
Example: hospitalized = hospital – liz- ed.
hopeless = hope – less
hunter = hunt – er.
- Lexical category : the function of part of speech (noun, adjective, verb, preposition).
- Affixes : a morpheme that cannot stand alone and doesn’t have the lexical category.
Example : _s , _ion, _ness, _ful (as the suffix)
Un_ , Ir_ , Im_ (as the prefix)
- Derivation : an additional process of affix that can change the meaning or the function of the word.
- Compounding : the process to combine two or more word
- Inflectional Affix : Affix that can modification the word form can be identified the various grammatical information.
The word that can be broken down into smaller form has a meaning and function.
A word that consist one morpheme: hard, farm, easy, build , clear,express, practice, doubt ,imagine,etc
A word that consist more than one morpheme:
– loudly = loud + ly (two morpheme)
– farmer = farm + er (two morpheme)
– unbreakable = un + break + able (three morpheme)
– careful = care + ful (two morpheme)
Two kinds of morpheme:
- Bound Morpheme
Bound Morpheme is the kind of morpheme that cannot stand alone must attach with the other word to modify it.
- …s = ~ as the additional to express plural number
(pen- pens), (ring -rings), (flower -flowers), (pillow -pillows), etc.
- …ed = ~ as the additional to express tenses.
(studied), (walked), (turned), (washed), (cleaned), (weared), etc.
- …er = ~ as the affix to modify verb to noun
(farm – farmer), (design -designer), etc.
~ as the affix to express comparative.
(happy – happier), (great – greater), etc.
- …est = ~ to express superlative.
(big – bigest), (small – smallest), (soft – softest), etc.
- …ly = to modify adjective to adverb.
(careful – carefully), (easy – easily), (strong – strongly), etc.
- Un…= to express opposite meaning.
(break – unbreak), (comfortable – uncomfortable), etc.
- Im…= to express opposite meaning.
(possible – imposible), etc.
- Free Morpheme
Free morpheme is the kind of morpheme that can stand alone without attach with the other affix and have the function of word in the grammatical.
- Preposition : with, of, behind, between, to, etc.
- Determiner : the, A, An.
- Conjunction : and, while, or, that, etc.
- Pronoun : she, he, we, you, they,etc
- Modal : will, can, need, use, should, etc.
- Auxiliary : is, are, was, were, has, have, etc.
- Think : book, pan, hand, body,etc
- Root : write, farm, day, far, slow, etc.
There are the sample of using bound morpheme and free morpheme to get the differences.
|Free Morphemes||Bound Morphemes|
Allomorphs are the variant form of morpheme that have different of sound in pronounce them.
Allomorph can change the pronunciation of the word when attach of this word.
In English there are In,Im,Il, Ir that give the negative meaning.
The differences of bound morpheme and allomorph are:
Bound morpheme is a morpheme that can’t stand alone, it’s mean that it must attached to the other unit.
Cat +’s’= cats (to express plural number)
Allomorphs are the variant form of morpheme that have different of sound in pronounce them. It’s mean that they have different symbol of phonetic, although they have same meaning.
Cat +’s’ =cats
‘s’ in above as a morpheme (bound morpheme) because ‘s’ because ‘s’ has meaning in that context, the meaning is more than one
But if we pronounce them, for example:
‘s’ above as allomorph because ‘s’ has different sound and different symbol of phonetic, although has same meaning
Affix is the kinds of morpheme that cannot stand alone and attach in front or behind or within a root or steam.
There are many types of affix:
Prefix is the type of affix that must attach in front of the root or steam and it can change the meaning of the word usually change to the opposite meaning.
Countable (bisa dihitung)—-Un + countable = uncountable (tidak bisa dihitung)
Possible (mungkin)—-Im+possible = impossible (tidak mugkin)
Infix is the type of affix that attached or inserted within the root or steam.
Peran = p+em+eran= pemeran
Kudung = k+er=udung= kerudung
Gembung = g+el+embung=gelembung
Kerja = k+in+erja= kinerja
Baru = b+ah+aru= baharu
Beside of the example in the top, we can get the conclusion that there are many kinds of infix, such as em,er,el,in,ah.
Suffix is the type of affix that attached behind of the root or steam and it can modify the meaning and the structure of the word.
Beauty = beauty+ful= beautiful
(the meaning is kecantikan) (the meaning is cantik)
(the structure as a noun) (the structure as an adjactive)
Suprafix is the type of affix that have a tone and stressing on the pronounce to change to the differ where is a noun, where is a verb.
U’nite (verb) — ‘unit (noun) make stressing in pronoun it.
Produce /pro;dju;s/ (noun)— /pre’dju;s/ make differ in pronoun it.
Circumfix is the type of affix that attached in front and behind of the root or steam. Circumfix is an affx that as a pair.
In English : a— ing In Indonesia: ke—an= kesultanan
Em—en pe—an= pekerjaan
e—en ber—an= berjualan
Simulfix is the type of affix that cange or replacement of vowel or consonant that can change the meaning of the word.
Datum (satu data) = data (data-data)
That (itu) = this (ini)
Drink (in the present) = drunk (in the past).
7. Separable Affix
Separable affix is the type of affix that can move of affix from the location to the other location in a root or steam.
In German language:
An = ankomen (to arrive)
The location of an move to be = komma an (arrive)
8. Derivational Affix
Derivational Affix is the type of affix that attach to the root or steam and can change the meaning and the gramatical of the word.
Speak (bicara) as a verb = speak + er = speaker (pembicara) as a noun
Soft (lembut) as an adjective = soft + ly = softly (kelembutan) as a noun.
9. Inflectional Affix
Inflectional Affix is the type of affix that can express the grammatical category such as to express a temporal condition.
If we will say something that in the future, we can add ‘will’ before the root or the steam.
If we will say something that the event in the past, we can add ‘had’ before the root or the steam.
But inflectional affix cannot change the grammatical category.
Visit (verb) – visited (verb)
Car (noun) – cars (noun)
Great (adjactive) – greater (adjactive)
The difference of inflectional affix and derivation :
|– doesn’t change the grammatical categorypillow(noun) – pillows (noun)listen (verb) – listening (verb to express continous)||Can change grammatical categoryHappy (adjc) – happiness (noun)Listen (verb) – listening (noun)
Ex: Listening music is my hoby
Lexical category is called word class in grammatical function.
There are the kinds of lexical category :
- Open word class
Open word class is the word that accept the addition of new items as the process of compounding, derivation, borrowing.
Noun, adjective, adverbs, interjection, verb, particle, pronoun, cardinal number,etc
- Close word class
Close word class is the word that can be adding something.
Noun is the word that express of person, thing, place, event, quality, idea that have the function as the subject or object of the sentence.
The classification of noun:
- proper noun
proper noun is called proper names that denote a particular, person, place, or thing example:John,Indonesia, etc.
- common noun
common noun is the word that describe a class of entities that is paired with a number or other word.
The third floor, the tea cup, etc.
- countable noun
countable noun is the noun that can count and can take plural number
chair, car, fish, etc.
- uncountable noun
uncountable noun is noun that the quantity can’t be counted.
Example: sugar, salt, soil, biology, mathematics, etc.
- collective noun
collective noun is the specific word used to explain the group of people, animal, or something.
Example ; the athlete ofIndonesia(athlete as the collective noun)
- concrete noun
concrete noun is noun that can be seen on our five sense about the shape, texture, color, flavor,etc.
example : house, horse, blood, hand, Mr. Smith, hamburger, etc
- abstract noun
abstract noun is noun haven’t shape, color, texture, flavor, and the others that can be seen.
Example ; heart, love, agreement, quality, relationship, etc.
Adjective is a word that tells us more about noun or pronoun.
Example : adjective modified noun “the old man” (old as the adjective that explain the man).
Position of adjective :
– after certain verb (It is hard)
– before a noun (I like Javanese food)
Adjective phrase is two or more word that the head of word is adjective.
Example : very strong, more beautiful
Attribute adjective is noun phrase that have the function as adjective.
Example : the young women.
Predicative adjective is adjective that have the function as the predicate in the sentence.
Example ; The women are young.
Adverb is a word that has the function to explain more about verb, adjective, clause, sentence.
Adverbial is called the function of adverb.
There are the samples of adverb:
- adverb of manner (happily, softly,quickly,etc)
the position of adverb after the verb.
Example: she dance beautifully.
The position adverb before the verb.
Example; the teacher looked at students suspiciously.
- adverb of time (soon, now, last, next)
adverb that explain when.
Adverb of time is placed in front or the end of sentence.
Example; he is studying in library now
but sometimes it is pleaced in the middle of sentence
example: I’ve just finished.
- adverb of place (there, here,etc)
adverb that explain where.
Adverb of place usually placed in end position.
Example: they come here.
But we can move them in front of the sentence to introduce the theme or topic, usually it is happened in descriptive writing and report.
Example: In the garden, Mary built a tree house.
- adverb of degree( more, very, barely,etc)
example; he is very handsome
adverb of “well”:
adverb of well can express as adverb of manner and adverb of degree.
He write well (as adverb of manner)
She know the toy well (as the adverb of degree)
Interjection is the word that is often pronounced as the expression of our emotional.
They have no grammatical fuction but sometimes we use them more in speaking than writing.
Yeah…! (to express the succes)
Ups…! (to express the mistake)
Oh My god..! (to express surprise)
Cuit-cuit (to express interested with someone)
Verb is the word to denote action.
Example: bring, wear, eat, drink, etc
The kinds of verb:
– intransitive verb : verb that is not followed by object.
Example; she falls.
– transitive verb : verb that is followed by object.
Example ; she loves me
– Distransitive verb : verb that is followed by two object.
Example; my mother gives me advice.
Copula is the word that is used to liken subject with the predicate.
Example: is,are,was, remain, seem, become, etc.
Verbal noun is noun that denote action of the verb
Gerund (speaking, reading, listening, writing, eating, etc)
To infinitive (to read, to listen, to drink, to write,etc)
Verbal adjective is called participle
Auxiliary verb is verb that have the function as passive, progressive, perfect, modal, dummy.
- Passive verb
Auxiliary verb be that is used with a past participle
Example; the window was closed
(it’s mean that someone or something closed it)
- progressive verb
auxiliary verb be that is used with present participle to form the continues.
Example; she is singing in the stage now.
- perfect verb
auxiliary verb that is used with a past participle to form perfect.
Example; I have finished the assaignment .
Example; can, may, shall, will, must
example; do, does, has, should (the word that is as introgativequetion)
Conjunction is a word that “join”.
Coordinating conjunction : and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so,etc.
Correlative conjunction : both, and-either, but-also, etc
Subordinating conjunction : although, because, since,unless.
Noun modifier that is express of quantity.
Example; the,a, an, few, little, many,much,etc
v Measure word
Measure word that is combined by numerial to denote the countable noun
A cup of tea, a piece of cake, etc.
The variety of affixes that is attached in noun phrase.
Example; they are in the class.
Example; of, with,from,in, on, over, through, to, behind, etc
Example; thereafter, wherein, what for?,etc
Sir.. I can’t explain it.
I don’t understand it.
Pronoun is the word that is used to replace of noun.