A. The Meaning of morphologi

Morphologi is the science that study of form of word and study about the rules how the words are formed.

There are many kinds part of grammar that is concerned with word:

  • Lexicon

Lexicon is about how words are placed and what the meaning of different part of speech of word

  • Word

Word is the smallest unit form in language that can be classified an part of speech (noun, adjective, verb, etc).

  • Morpheme

Morpheme is the simple word that cannot be broken  down  into smaller form, it has the meaning or function.

  • Simple word

Simple word is the word that consist of one morpheme

Example: home, cat, bird

  • Complex word

Complex word is the word that consist of more than one morpheme

Example: hospitalizations = hospital – iz –ation – s (consist of 4 morphemes)

Gentleman = gentle – man (consist of 2 morphemes)

  • Free morpheme

Free morpheme is the morpheme that can stand alone to get the meaning and function.

Example : book (buku) = noun

Make (membuat) = verb

Tall (tinggi) = adjective


  • Bound morpheme

Bound morpheme is the morpheme that must attaché to another word to get the meaning of word, it cannot stand alone.

Example: er, fy, ly, ion, nes, etc (they don’t have the meaning )

B. Function of Morpheme

Morpheme have the function to give information about grammatical function.


-preposition = in, of, on, to, with, behind,etc

-article = the, a, an

-pronoun = I, you, he, she,they, we, etc

-auxiliaries = will, am, is, are, was, were, etc.

-inflectional affixes = ..s,, …ed.

Allomorph is the variant of morpheme that have the function to express how manner to pronounce singular word and express indefiniteness.

Example: English indefinite article = a, an.

English plural = s, z, es

Cats (cats), dogs (dogz),

Word structure :

  •  Root : the word that has component of meaning and cannot be broken into small units

Example: nation, create, act, etc

  • Stem : the form to which an affix is added.

Example: hospitalized = hospital – liz- ed.

hopeless = hope – less

hunter = hunt – er.

  • Lexical category : the function of part of speech (noun, adjective, verb, preposition).
  • Affixes : a morpheme that cannot stand alone and doesn’t have the lexical category.

Example : _s , _ion, _ness, _ful (as the suffix)

Un_ , Ir_ , Im_ (as the prefix)


  • Derivation : an additional process of affix that can change the meaning or the function of the word.
  • Compounding : the process to combine two or more word
  • Inflectional Affix : Affix that can modification the word form can be identified the various grammatical information.

C. Morpheme

The word that can be broken down into smaller form has a meaning and function.

For example:

A word that consist one morpheme:  hard, farm, easy, build , clear,express, practice, doubt ,imagine,etc

A word that consist more than one morpheme:

– loudly = loud + ly                             (two morpheme)

– farmer = farm + er                            (two morpheme)

– unbreakable = un + break + able       (three morpheme)

– careful = care + ful                           (two morpheme)

Two kinds of morpheme:

  1. Bound Morpheme

Bound Morpheme is the kind of morpheme that cannot stand alone must attach with the other word to modify it.


  • …s = ~ as the additional to express plural number

(pen- pens), (ring -rings), (flower -flowers), (pillow -pillows), etc.

  • …ed = ~ as the additional to express tenses.

(studied), (walked), (turned), (washed), (cleaned), (weared), etc.

  • …er = ~ as the affix to modify verb to noun

(farm – farmer), (design -designer), etc.

~ as the affix to express comparative.

(happy – happier), (great – greater), etc.

  • …est = ~ to express superlative.

(big – bigest), (small – smallest), (soft – softest), etc.

  • …ly = to modify adjective to adverb.

(careful – carefully), (easy – easily), (strong – strongly), etc.

  • Un…= to express opposite meaning.

(break – unbreak), (comfortable – uncomfortable), etc.

  • Im…= to express opposite meaning.

(possible – imposible), etc.

  • Etc.
  1. Free Morpheme

Free morpheme is the kind of morpheme that can stand alone without attach with the other affix and have the function of word in the grammatical.


  • Preposition : with, of, behind, between, to, etc.
  • Determiner : the, A, An.
  • Conjunction : and, while, or, that, etc.
  • Pronoun : she, he, we, you, they,etc
  • Modal : will, can, need, use, should, etc.
  • Auxiliary : is, are, was, were, has, have, etc.
  • Think : book, pan, hand, body,etc
  • Root : write, farm, day, far, slow, etc.
  • Etc.

There are the sample of using bound morpheme and free morpheme to get the differences.

Free Morphemes Bound Morphemes
  • They
  • You
  • She
  • He
  • Work
  • Walk
  • With
  • Happy
  • Loud
  • Hard
  • Day
  • Year
  • Slow
  • Paper
  • Near
  • Far
  • Fast
  • Home
  • Rule
  • Easy
  • Farm
  • Drive
  • Clean
  • Clear
  • Neither
  • Either
  • Break
  • Bad
  • Bath
  • Some
  • One
  • Two
  • Car
  • God
  • Good
  • Gues


  • Hardly (hard-ly)
  • Builder (build-er)
  • Careful (care-ful)
  • Doubtful (doubt- ful)
  • Clearly  (clear-ly)
  • Expressly (express-ly)
  • Comfortable (comfort-able)
  • Kindness (kind-ness)
  • Happiness (happy-ness)
  • Fertilizer (fertilize- er)
  • Correctness (correct-ness)
  • Unity (unit-y)
  • Unverbal (un- verbal)
  • Unequal ( un-equal)
  • Uneasiness (un- easy- ness)
  • Slowly (slow-ly)
  • Loudly (loud-ly)
  • Unbreak (un-break)
  • Unbreakable (un- break- able)
  • Daily ( day-ly)
  • Countable (count-able)
  • Uncountable ( un-count-able)
  • Irregular ( ir-regular)
  • Irrelevant (ir-relevant)
  • Reciprocally (reciprocal-ly)
  • Primary ( primar-ry)
  • Illness ( ill-ness)
  • Dangerous (danger-ous)
  • Original (origin-al)
  • Exhibition (ex-habit-ion)
  • Strongly (strong-ly)
  • Appreciation (appreciate-ion)
  • Enjoyable (enjoy-able)
  • Imaginative (imagine-tive)
  • Driver (drive-er)
  • Farmer (farm-er)


Allomorph is

Allomorphs are the variant form of morpheme that have different of sound in pronounce them.

Allomorph can change the pronunciation of the word when attach of this word.

In English there are In,Im,Il, Ir that give the negative meaning.

The differences of bound morpheme and allomorph are:

Bound morpheme is a morpheme that can’t stand alone, it’s mean that it must attached to the other unit.

Cat +’s’= cats (to express plural number)

Allomorphs are the variant form of morpheme that have different of sound in pronounce them. It’s mean that they have different symbol of phonetic, although they have same meaning.

For example:

Cat +’s’ =cats

Dog+ ‘s’=dogs

‘s’ in above as a morpheme (bound morpheme) because ‘s’ because ‘s’ has meaning in that context, the meaning is more than one

But if we pronounce them, for example:

Cats {kaets}

Dogs {dogz}

‘s’ above as allomorph because ‘s’ has different sound and different symbol of phonetic, although has same meaning


Affix is the kinds of morpheme that cannot stand alone and attach in front or behind or within a root or steam.

There are many types of affix:

1 Prefix

Prefix is the type of affix that must attach in front of the root or steam and it can change the meaning of the word usually change to the opposite meaning.

For example:

Countable (bisa dihitung)—-Un + countable = uncountable (tidak bisa dihitung)

Possible (mungkin)—-Im+possible = impossible (tidak mugkin)

2, Infix

Infix is the type of affix that attached or inserted within the root or steam.

For example:


Peran               = p+em+eran= pemeran

Kudung           = k+er=udung= kerudung

Gembung        = g+el+embung=gelembung

Kerja               = k+in+erja= kinerja

Baru                = b+ah+aru= baharu

Beside of the example in the top, we can get the conclusion that there are many kinds of infix, such as em,er,el,in,ah.

3. Suffix

Suffix is the type of affix that attached behind of the root or steam and it can modify the meaning and the structure of the word.

For example:

Beauty                                     = beauty+ful= beautiful

(the meaning is kecantikan)                            (the meaning is cantik)

(the structure as a noun)                                  (the structure as an adjactive)

4. Suprafix

Suprafix is the type of affix that have a tone and stressing on the pronounce to change to the differ where is a noun, where is a verb.

For example:

U’nite (verb) — ‘unit (noun) make stressing in pronoun it.

Produce /pro;dju;s/ (noun)— /pre’dju;s/ make differ in pronoun it.

5. Circumfix

Circumfix is the type of affix that attached in front and behind of the root or steam. Circumfix is an affx that as a pair.

For example:

In English :      a— ing             In Indonesia:   ke—an= kesultanan

Em—en                                   pe—an= pekerjaan

e—en                                       ber—an= berjualan

ber—kan= berlapiskan

6. Simulfix

Simulfix is the type of affix that cange or replacement of vowel or consonant that can change the meaning of the word.

For example:

Datum (satu data) = data (data-data)

That (itu) = this (ini)

Drink (in the present) = drunk (in the past).

7. Separable Affix

Separable affix is the type of affix that can move of affix from the location to the other location in a root or steam.

For example:

In German language:

An = ankomen (to arrive)

The location of an move to be = komma an (arrive)

8. Derivational Affix

Derivational Affix is the type of affix that attach to the root or steam and can change the meaning and the gramatical of the word.

For example:

Speak (bicara) as a verb = speak + er = speaker (pembicara) as a noun

Soft (lembut) as an adjective = soft + ly = softly (kelembutan) as a noun.

9. Inflectional Affix

Inflectional Affix is the type of affix that can express the grammatical category such as to express a temporal condition.

For example:

If we will say something that in the future, we can add ‘will’ before the root or the steam.

If we will say something that the event in the past, we can  add ‘had’ before the root or the steam.

But inflectional affix cannot change the grammatical category.


Visit (verb) – visited (verb)

Car (noun) – cars (noun)

Great (adjactive) – greater (adjactive)

The difference of inflectional affix and derivation :

Inflexional affix
–          doesn’t change the grammatical categorypillow(noun) – pillows (noun)listen (verb) – listening (verb to express continous) Can change grammatical categoryHappy (adjc) – happiness (noun)Listen (verb) – listening (noun)

Ex: Listening music is my hoby


Lexical Category

Lexical category is called word class in grammatical function.

There are the kinds of lexical category :

  1. Open word class

Open word class is the word that accept the addition of new items as the process of compounding, derivation, borrowing.

They are:

Noun, adjective, adverbs, interjection, verb, particle, pronoun, cardinal number,etc

  1. Close word class

Close word class is the word that can be adding something.


Noun is the word that express of person, thing, place, event, quality, idea that have the function as the subject or object of the sentence.

The classification of noun:

  • proper noun

proper noun is called proper names that denote a particular, person, place, or thing example:John,Indonesia, etc.

  • common noun

common noun is the word that describe a class of entities that is paired with a number or other word.

Example :

The third floor, the tea cup, etc.

  • countable noun

countable noun is the noun that can count and can take plural number


chair, car, fish, etc.

  • uncountable noun

uncountable noun is noun that the quantity can’t be counted.

Example: sugar, salt, soil, biology, mathematics, etc.

  • collective noun

collective noun is the specific word used to explain the group of people, animal, or something.

Example ; the athlete ofIndonesia(athlete as the collective noun)

  • concrete noun

concrete noun is noun that can be seen on our five sense about the shape, texture, color, flavor,etc.

example : house, horse, blood, hand, Mr. Smith, hamburger, etc

  • abstract noun

abstract noun is noun haven’t  shape, color, texture, flavor, and the others that can be seen.

Example ; heart, love, agreement, quality, relationship, etc.

v  Adjactive

Adjective is a word that tells us more about noun or pronoun.

Example : adjective modified noun “the old man” (old as the adjective that explain the man).

Position of adjective :

– after certain verb (It is hard)

– before a noun (I like Javanese food)

Adjective phrase:

Adjective phrase is two or more word that the head of word is adjective.

Example : very strong, more beautiful

Attribute adjective.

Attribute adjective is noun phrase that have the function as adjective.

Example : the young women.

Predicative adjective

Predicative adjective is adjective that have the function as the predicate in the sentence.

Example ; The women are young.


Adverb is a word that has the function to explain more about verb, adjective, clause,  sentence.

Adverbial is called the function of adverb.

There are the samples of adverb:

  1. adverb of manner (happily, softly,quickly,etc)

the position of adverb after the verb.

Example: she dance beautifully.

The position adverb before the verb.

Example; the teacher looked at students suspiciously.

  1. adverb of time (soon, now, last, next)

adverb that explain when.

Adverb of time is placed in front or the end of sentence.

Example; he is studying in library now

but sometimes it is pleaced in the middle of sentence

example: I’ve just finished.

  1. adverb of place (there, here,etc)

adverb that explain where.

Adverb of place usually placed in end position.

Example: they come here.

But we can move them in front of the sentence to introduce the theme or topic, usually it is happened in descriptive writing and report.

Example: In the garden, Mary built a tree house.

  1. adverb of degree( more, very, barely,etc)

example; he is very handsome

adverb of “well”:

adverb of well can express as adverb of manner and adverb of degree.


He write well (as adverb of manner)

She know the toy well (as the adverb of degree)

v  Interjection

Interjection is the word that is often pronounced as the expression of our emotional.

They have no grammatical fuction but sometimes we use them more in speaking than writing.


Yeah…! (to express the succes)

Ups…! (to express the mistake)

Oh My god..! (to express surprise)

Cuit-cuit (to express interested with someone)


v  Verb

Verb is the word to denote action.

Example: bring, wear, eat, drink, etc

The kinds of verb:

–          intransitive verb : verb that is not followed by object.

Example; she falls.

–          transitive verb : verb that is followed by object.

Example ; she loves me

–          Distransitive verb : verb that is followed by two object.

Example; my mother gives me advice.

Copula is the word that is used to liken subject with the predicate.

Example: is,are,was, remain, seem, become, etc.

Verbal noun

Verbal noun is noun that denote action of the verb


Gerund (speaking, reading, listening, writing, eating, etc)

To infinitive (to read, to listen, to drink, to write,etc)

Verbal adjective is called participle

Auxiliary verb is verb that have the function as passive, progressive, perfect, modal, dummy.

  1. Passive verb

Auxiliary verb be that is used with a past participle

Example; the window was closed

(it’s mean that someone or something closed it)

  1. progressive verb

auxiliary verb be that is used with present participle to form the continues.

Example; she is singing in the stage now.

  1. perfect verb

auxiliary verb that is used with a past participle to form perfect.

Example; I have finished the assaignment .

  1. Modal

Example; can, may, shall, will, must

  1. dummy

example; do, does, has, should (the word that is as introgativequetion)

v  Conjunction

Conjunction is a word that “join”.

Coordinating conjunction : and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so,etc.

Correlative conjunction : both, and-either, but-also, etc

Subordinating conjunction : although, because, since,unless.

v  Determiner

Noun modifier that is express of quantity.

Example; the,a, an, few, little, many,much,etc

v  Measure word

Measure word that is combined by numerial to denote the countable noun


A cup of tea, a piece of cake, etc.

v  Adposition

The variety of affixes that is attached in noun phrase.

Example; they are in the class.

v  Preposition

Example; of, with,from,in, on, over, through, to, behind, etc

v  Postposition

Example; thereafter, wherein, what for?,etc

v  Ambiposition

Sir.. I can’t explain it.

v  Circumposition

I don’t understand it.

v  Pronoun

Pronoun is the word that is used to replace of noun.

Example: he,she,it,they,etc


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